Mongolia proclaimed itself an independent monarchy on March 13, 1921, ruled by a Russian military officer:

Mongolia proclaimed itself an independent monarchy on March 13, 1921, ruled by a Russian military officer:

Mongolia

HISTORY

During the 1206 political rise of Genghis Khan, the Mongol Empire created by him and his allies shared its western borders with the Western Xia Dynasty of the Tanguts. Genghis Khan conquered in total approximately 4.8 million square miles, more territory than Alexander The Great, Napoleon, or any other leader achieved. By his death Genghis Khan’s empire ranged from the Yellow Sea to the Black Sea to North India.

Genghis Khan

The Mongols of Genghis Khan employed 300,000 horses, stationed at 10,000 posts. They were kept in constant readiness for couriers who, riding through day and night, could sleep and eat in the saddle. Bells attached to the horses announced their approach from afar, so that nothing should stop them.

During the 13th century the Mongolian Navy was known to be the largest Navy in the whole world.

By the reign of Kublai Khan 50 years later, the Mongol empire stretched from modern day Hungary to Korea. However, in 1281 an army 140,000 strong failed to conquer Japan. A typhoon destroyed Khan’s ships en route and the myth of Mongol invincibility vanished from Asia.

The 13th century Mongol Empire was the world’s largest continuous land empire of all time.

This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire compared to today’s Mongols. The red area shows where the majority of Mongolian speakers reside today.

Thirteenth century Mongols usually wore a pocket-less garment called a del, to which they attached eating sets containing chopsticks and a knife to a sash. A silver loop fastened to the end of a chord locked the knife and chopsticks in place so they did not fall out if the owner is active or on horseback.

Thirteenth century Mongols were big on silk shirts. They believed washing was a sacrilege. Also the thick crust of dirt which covered their bodies helped them withstand the cold of the Gobi desert winters.

By the end of the 17th century, most of Mongolia was part of an area ruled by the Qing Dynasty.

Mongolia gained independence from the Qing dynasty on December 29, 1911, enthroning 9th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu as Khagan of Mongolia.

Mongolia proclaimed itself an independent monarchy on March 13, 1921, ruled by Russian military officer Roman von Ungern-Sternberg as a dictator.

On July 6, 1921 Russian and Mongolian troops arrived in Khüree and Ungern was captured by the Soviet detachment and sentenced to execution by firing squad. Mongolia was closely aligned with the Communist Soviet Union over the next seven decades.

The Soviet Union signed an agreement with the Peking government on May 31, 1924, referring to Outer Mongolia as an “integral part of the Republic of China”, whose “sovereignty” therein the Soviet Union promised to respect.

At the first open pro-democracy demonstration in Mongolia on December 10, 1989, journalist Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj announced the formation of the Mongolian Democratic Union, which would be instrumental in ending Communist rule four months later.

The current Mongolian flag was adopted on February 12, 1992, after the transition of the country to a democracy. It is similar to the flag of 1940, except for the removal of the socialist star on top of the Soyombo.

FUN FACTS

The Mongolian Prime Minister Chimediin Saikhanbileg can bench press 175 kilograms (385 lb).

In 2001 a record high barometric pressure of 1085.6 hPa (32.06 inHg) was recorded at Tosontsengel, Khövsgöl Province, Mongolia.

On June 2, 2008, 52 people and 200,000 head of cattle died in heavy blizzards in Mongolia.

Mongolia is known as ‘The land of eternal blue sky’ as it experiences an average of 250 days of sunshine a year.

The highest point in Mongolia is the Khüiten Peak in the Tavan bogd massif. It’s height is 4,374 m (14,350 ft).

The official language of Mongolia is Mongolian, and is spoken by 95% of the population. A variety of dialects of Oirat and Buryatare are also spoken across the country.

Mongolia is the 19th largest country in the world, with an area of 1,564,116 square kilometres.

The largest city, and capital is Ulaanbaatar. It is where about 45% of the population live.

Ulaanbaatar. By Yastanovog – Wikipedia Commons

The average temperature of Ulaanbaatar is -1.7C (29.7F) making  it the world’s coldest capital city.

There are 2,791,272 people living in Mongolia in its 604,000 square miles. It is the most sparsely populated country on the planet.

Mongolia has more horses per head of population than any other country.

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